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Z Axis

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Consider as an example superimposing 3D Cartesian coordinates over all points on the Earth (i. e. geospatial 3D). What units make sense? Kilometers are ... Read more a good choice, since the original definition of the kilometer was geospatial. . . 10,000 km equalling the surface distance from the Equator to the North Pole. Where to place the origin? Based on symmetry, the gravitational center of the Earth suggests a natural landmark (which can be sensed via satellite orbits). Finally, how to orient X, Y and Z axis directions? The axis of Earth's spin provides a natural direction strongly associated with "up vs. down", so positive Z can adopt the direction from geocenter to North Pole. A location on the Equator is needed to define the X-axis, and the Prime Meridian stands out as a reference direction, so the X-axis takes the direction from geocenter out to [ 0 degrees longitude, 0 degrees latitude ]. Note that with 3 dimensions, and two perpendicular axes directions pinned down for X and Z, the Y-axis is determined by the first two choices. In order to obey the right hand rule, the Y-axis must point out from the geocenter to [ 90 degrees longitude, 0 degrees latitude ]. So what are the geocentric coordinates of the Empire State Building in New York City? Using [ longitude = −73. 985656, latitude = 40. 748433 ], Earth radius = 40,000/2π, and transforming from spherical --> Cartesian coordinates, you can estimate the geocentric coordinates of the Empire State Building, [ x, y, z ] = [ 1330. 53 km, –4635. 75 km, 4155. 46 km ]. GPS navigation relies on such geocentric coordinates.

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Y and Z axis are detailed   Z Axis

Y and Z axis are detailed


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Z-axis  above  shown mounted  Z Axis

Z-axis above shown mounted


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Roy s Junkyard  Z Axis

Roy s Junkyard


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Watch out  vertical Y axis in  Z Axis

Watch out vertical Y axis in


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Step 22 Z-Axis Assembly  Z Axis

Step 22 Z-Axis Assembly


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degrees around the z-axis  Z Axis

degrees around the z-axis


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XYZ Axis Definition  Z Axis

XYZ Axis Definition


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along the Z axis   Z Axis

along the Z axis


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is for the Z-AXIS   Z Axis

is for the Z-AXIS


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and our Z axis we need to  Z Axis

and our Z axis we need to


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 0 0 cz  lies on z  axis   Z Axis

0 0 cz lies on z axis


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The Z-axis has always been  Z Axis

The Z-axis has always been


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z-axis design intent   Z Axis

z-axis design intent


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